This part of the lesson is for beginners only........
Here I just want to point what exactly you will be doing in order to optimise your pages.
From scratch... You have a new website, with the design ready.. converted to HTML.
Create the home page of your website... Plan what pages you are going to add to the site (of course depending on the keywords you wish to target).
Prepare content for your page, having optimum keyword count in it. It can be anything in between 2-5%. Dont overstuff your keyword. Check the content for grammatical mistakes. Use mis spelled keyword, if you would like to target them (You can even get traffic from misspelled word searches).
Create a title tag which contains your main keyword near to starting of the sentence in title, create a meta description tag which describes what this page is about ( of course with the keyword in it), meta keyword tag which has the list of main keywords, seprated by a ",".
Now comes header tags (h1, h2, h3, etc) Use upto H4 and use headers containing your main keyword for that page. H4 can be used in footer as a copyright. H1 your main heading for the page. h2 and h3 accordingly. Use css for styles and keep the css in an external file.
Alt tags.. these are tags to be used along with images, will be displayed in the place of image if it fails to load. Keywords can be inserted in alt tags. Use alt tags for all images. Dont copy the same keyword in all alt ags of images. Instead use combinations of keywords.
Use title tag for links a href="http://seolion.blogspot" title="SEO Blog" is a typical use of title tag.
Create a sitemap.html file which has direct links to almost all your pages. As I told earlier, search engine crawlers travel through links. So Once a crawler reaches your sitemap, it can read all your pages from there..
This is a brief idea of on page optimisation. I will update when I find something which I haven't mentioned.